هذه الرسالة تفيد أنك غير مسجل .

و يسعدنا كثيرا انضمامك لنا ...

للتسجيل اضغط هـنـا

 
منتدى الهندسة الكهربية



الإهداءات

العودة   منتدى الهندسة الكهربية > قسم المكتبة الهندسية > مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية


المواضيع المتشابهه
الموضوع كاتب الموضوع الأقسام الرئيسية مشاركات المشاركة الاخيرة
Electric Power Engineering Handbook احمد كامل مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية 16 11-08-2014 06:25 AM
industrial Power Engineering Handbook (Newnes Power Engineering Series qjjiijiqjiij مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية 20 10-25-2014 01:31 PM
Electric power transformer engineering qjjiijiqjiij قسم هندسة المحولات الكهربية 0 11-25-2012 07:05 PM
The Electric Power Engineering Handbook احمد كامل مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية 2 11-24-2012 03:30 AM
مرجع Electric Power Substations Engineering محمد منير قسم صيانة المعدات الخاصة بمحطات التحويل Switchgear 26 09-21-2011 06:59 PM

 
LinkBack أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع
قديم 05-28-2009, 11:34 AM   رقم المشاركة : [1]
م.مصطفى أبوبكر
الصورة الرمزية qjjiijiqjiij
 

qjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud of
Arrow أعــظم ســلسلة كـــتب (The ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERING Series)



السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته





هذه الكتب تتحمل من دون نقاش

ElECTRIC POWER
distribution
handbook


The ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERING Series
series editor Leo Grigsy

Published Titles:
1 Computational Methods for Electric Power Systems
Mariesa Crow
2 Distribution System Modeling and Analysis
William H. Kersting
3 Electric Drives
Ion Boldea and Syed Nasar
4 Electrical Energy Systems
Mohamed E. El-Hawary
5 Electric Power Substations Engineering *
John D. McDonald
6 Electric Power Transformer Engineering
James H. Harlow
7 Electromechanical Systems, Electric Machines, and Applied Mechatronics
Sergey E. Lyshevski
8 The Induction Machine Handbook *
Ion Boldea and Syed Nasar
9 Linear Synchronous Motors: Transportation and Automation Systems
Jacek Gieras and Jerry Piech
10 Power Quality
C. Sankaran
11 Power System Operations and Electricity Markets *
Fred I. Denny and David E. Dismukes
12 Electric Power Distribution Handbook
Tom Short

Forthcoming Titles
1 The Electric Generators Handbook
Ion Boldea
2 The ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERING Series
Series Editor Leo L. Grigsby

Electrical Energy Systems (Power Engineering)

By Mohamed E. El-Hawary

Publisher: CRC
Number Of Pages: 384
Publication Date: 2000-04-18
Sales Rank: 323168
ISBN / ASIN: 0849321913
EAN: 9780849321917
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: CRC
Studio: CRC



Book De******ion:

The growing importance of renewable energy sources, control methods and mechanisms, and system restoration has created a need for a concise, comprehensive **** that covers the concepts associated with electric power and energy systems. Electrical Energy Systems fills that need, providing an up-to-date introduction to this dynamic field.The author begins with a discussion of the modern electric power system, centering on the technical aspects of power generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization. After providing an overview of electric power and machine theory fundamentals, he offers a practical treatment-focused on applications-of the major topics required for a solid background in the field, including synchronous machines, transformers, and electric motors. He also furnishes a unique look at activities related to power systems, such as power flow and control, stability, state estimation, and security assessment. A discussion of present and future directions of the electrical energy field rounds out the ****.With its broad, up-to-date coverage, emphasis on applications, and integrated MATLAB ******s, Electrical Energy Systems provides an ideal, practical introduction to the field-perfect for self-study or short-course work for professionals in related disciplines.

Table of *******s
Preface
Chapter 1 – INTRODUCTION……….1
1.1 A Brief History of Electric Power Systems……….1
1.2 The Structure of the Power System……….3
1.3 Outline of the ****……….7
Chapter 2 – BASICS OF ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEM THEORY……9
2.1 Introduction……….9
2.2 Concepts of Power in Alternating Current Systems……….9
2.3 Three-Phase Systems……….14
2.4 The Per Unit System……….24
2.5 Electromagnetism and Electromechanical Energy
Conversion……….27
2.6 Permeability and Magnetic Field Intensity……….30
2.7 Flux Linkages, Induced Voltages, Inductance, and
Energy……….34
2.8 Hysteresis Loop……….36
2.9 Eddy Current and Core Losses……….37
2.10 Energy Flow Approach……….40
2.11 Multiply Excited Systems……….44
2.12 Doubly Excited Systems……….45
2.13 Salient-Pole Machines……….47
2.14 Round or Smooth Air-Gap Machines……….49
2.15 Machine-Type Classification……….52
2.16 P-Pole Machines……….54
2.17 Power System Representation……….58
Problems……….59
Chapter 3 – POWER GENERATION AND THE SYNCHRONOUS
MACHINE……….69
3.1 Introduction……….69
3.2 The Synchronous Machine: Preliminaries……….67
3.3 Synchronous Machine Fields……….72
3.4 A Simple Equivalent Circuit……….74
3.5 Principal Steady-State Characteristics……….77
3.6 Power-Angle Characteristics and the Infinite Bus
Concept……….79
3.7 Accounting for Saliency……….86
3.8 Salient-Pole Machine Power Angle Characteristics……….90
Problems……….93
Chapter 4 – THE TRANSFORMER……….97
4.1 Introduction……….97
4.2 General Theory of Transformer Operation……….97
4.3 Transformer Connections……….111
Problems……….121
Chapter 5 – ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION……….125
5.1 Introduction……….125
5.2 Electric Transmission Line Parameters……….125
5.3 Line Inductance……….127
5.4 Line Capacitance……….145
5.5 Two-Port Networks……….161
5.6 Transmission Line Models……….163
Problems……….179
Chapter 6 – INDUCTION AND FRACTIONAL HORSEPOWER
MOTORS……….185
6.1 Introduction……….185
6.2 Three-Phase Induction Motors……….185
6.3 Torque Relations……….193
6.4 Classification of Induction Motors……….198
6.5 Rotating Magnetic Fields in Single-Phase Induction
Motors……….199
6.6 Equivalent Circuits for Single-Phase Induction Motors…204
6.7 Power and Torque Relations……….210
6.8 Starting Single-Phase Induction Motors……….216
6.9 Single-Phase Induction Motor Types……….218
Problems……….225
Chapter 7 – FAULTS AND PROTECTION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY

Chapter 8 – THE ENERGY CONTROL CENTER……….299

References……….361


http://rapidshare.com/files/28470988/eEES_CHIPOLLO.rar
pwd: www.Chipollo.Info

http://rapidshare.com/files/11930954...0849321913.rar

http://mihd.net/c2g95f




****************************
Electric Power Substations Engineering (Electric Power Engineering Series, 8)

By John D. McDonald

Publisher: CRC
Number Of Pages: 304
Publication Date: 2003-06-27
Sales Rank: 380956
ISBN / ASIN: 0849317037
EAN: 9780849317033
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: CRC



Book De******ion:

This book covers all aspects of substations, from the initial concept to design, automation, operation, and physical and cyber security. Written by members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Power Engineering Society (PES) Substations Committee, each section provides a tutorial and includes references for further reading and study. The authors use photographs and graphics to help the reader understand the material. Exploring the most recent technological developments regarding industry practice and standards, the book provides an extensive overview of substations that can be used as both a reference and study guide.

Table of *******s
1 How a Substation Happens
2 Gas-Insulated Substations
3 Air-Insulated Substations - Bus/Switching Configurations
4 High-Voltage Switching Equipment
5 High-Voltage Power Electronic Substations
6 The Interface between Automation and the Substation
7 Substation Integration and Automation
8 Oil Containment
9 Community Considerations
10 Animal Deterrents/Security
11 Substation Grounding
12 Grounding and Lightning
13 Seismic Considerations
14 Substation Fire Protection
15 Substation Communications
16 Physical Security
17 Cyber Security of Substation Control and Diagnostic Systems
18 Gas-Insulated Transmission Line (GIL)
Index



http://rapidshare.com/files/10111679...ngineering.rar

http://mihd.net/3tu41w




**************************************** ********
Electric Power Transformer Engineering (The Electric Power Engineering Series, 9)

By James H. Harlow

Publisher: CRC
Number Of Pages: 496
Publication Date: 2003-08-15
Sales Rank: 849489
ISBN / ASIN: 0849317045
EAN: 9780849317040
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: CRC





Book De******ion:

Covering the fundamental theory of electric power transformers, this book provides the background required to understand the basic operation of electromagnetic induction as applied to transformers. The book is divided into three fundamental groupings: one stand-alone chapter is devoted to Theory and Principles, nine chapters individually treat major transformer types, and fourteen chapters cover many ancillary topics associated with power transformers. Throughout the book, tables, charts, photographs, and equations describe the operation and performance of power transformers and facilitate the reader's understanding of the technical material.

*******s

Chapter 1 Theory and Principles Dennis Allan and Harold Moore
Chapter 2 Equipment Types
2.1 Power Transformers H. Jin Sim and Scott H. Digby
2.2 Distribution Transformers Dudley L. Galloway and Dan Mulkey
2.3 Phase-Shifting Transformers Gustav Preininger
2.4 Rectifier Transformers ****don P. Kennedy
2.5 Dry-Type Transformers Paulette A. Payne
2.6 Instrument Transformers Randy Mullikin
2.7 Step-Voltage Regulators Craig A. Colopy
2.8 Constant-Voltage Transformers Arindam Maitra, Anish Gaikwad,
Ralph Ferraro, Douglas Dorr, and Arshad Mansoor
2.9 Reactors Richard F. Dudley, Michael Sharp, Antonio Castanheira,
and Behdad Biglar
Chapter 3 Ancillary Topics
3.1 Insulating Media Leo J. Savio and Ted Haupert
3.2 Electrical Bushings Loren B. Wagenaar
3.3 Load Tap Changers Dieter Dohnal
3.4 Loading and Thermal Performance Robert F. Tillman, Jr.
3.5 Transformer Connections Dan D. Perco
3.6 Transformer Testing Shirish P. Mehta and William R. Henning
3.7 Load-Tap-Change Control and Transformer Paralleling
James H. Harlow
3.8 Power Transformer Protection Armando Guzmán, Hector J. Altuve,
and Gabriel Benmouyal
3.9 Causes and Effects of Transformer Sound Levels Jeewan Puri
3.10 Transient-Voltage Response Robert C. Degeneff
3.11 Transformer Installation and Maintenance Alan Oswalt
3.12 Problem and Failure Investigation Wallace Binder
and Harold Moore
3.13 On-Line Monitoring of Liquid-Immersed Transformers Andre Lux
3.14 U.S. Power Transformer Equipment Standards and Processes
Philip J. Hopkinson


http://rapidshare.de/files/8801376/E...eering_MAZ.rar

http://mihd.net/dkw827





**************************************** *****

The Induction Machine Handbook (Electric Power Engineering Series)

By Ion Boldea,&nbspSyed A. Nasar,

Publisher: CRC
Number Of Pages: 968
Publication Date: 2001-11-29
Sales Rank: 1113024
ISBN / ASIN: 0849300045
EAN: 9780849300042
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: CRC
Studio: CRC




Book De******ion:

This handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the wide variety of complex aspects of induction machine analysis and design. It provides an authoritative, up-to-date source of information for practicing and student engineers, including a presentation of all types of induction machines, numerous solved numerical examples of analysis and computer-aided design of induction machines, and interactive computer programs for analysis and design.


http://rapidshare.com/files/14456950...0849300045.rar

http://www.megaupload.com/?d=YAVWPD2E

http://mihd.net/bqa1dr





**************************************** ********

Linear Synchronous Motors: Transportation and Automation Systems

By Jacek F. Gieras,&nbspZbigniew J. Piech,

Publisher: CRC
Number Of Pages: 344
Publication Date: 1999-09-29
Sales Rank: 1138174
ISBN / ASIN: 0849318599
EAN: 9780849318597
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: CRC
Studio: CRC



Book De******ion:

Contrary to some opinions, electric motors are decidedly not part of an old-fashioned area of research. They are, in fact, the most popular machines of everyday life, and the number of types increase almost every year. Advances in materials engineering, power electronics, and control strategies along with energy and reliability demands continue to stimulate the development of exciting new technologies and applications. Ranking high among the most exciting of these technologies are linear synchronous motors (LSMs). Linear Synchronous Motors: Transportation and Automation Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of all types of brushless LSMs-their construction, electromagnetic effects, control, and applications. It explains the physics of hard magnetic materials, discusses permanent magnet and superconducting excitation systems, and addresses applications in factory automation and high-speed transportation systems. LSMs have better performance and higher power density than their induction counterparts, and they can operate with a larger mechanical clearance between their stationary and moving parts. Paying equal attention to the design and the applications of LSMs, Linear Synchronous Motors offers a unique opportunity to master the inner workings of LSMs, discover new research results, and keep abreast of their emerging applications. Electromechanical designers, electrical and mechanical engineers, as well as linear motor enthusiasts will welcome this broad and authoritative work to their reference collections.

*******s
Preface
1 Topology and Selection
1.1 Definitions, Geometry and Thrust Generation
1.2 Linear Synchronous Motor Topologies
1.2.1 Permanent Magnet Motors with Active Reaction Rail
1.2.2 PM Motors with Passive Reaction Rail
1.2.3 Motors with Electromagnetic Excitation
1.2.4 Motors with Superconducting Excitation System
1.2.5 Variable Reluctance Motors
1.2.6 Stepping Motors
1.2.7 Switched Reluctance Motors
1.3 Calculation of Forces
1.4 Linear Motion
1.4.1 Speed-Time Curve
1.4.2 Thrust-Time Curve
1.4.3 Dynamics
1.4.4 Traction
1.5 Selection of Linear Motors
2 Materials and Construction
2.1 Materials
2.2 Laminated Ferromagnetic Cores
2.2.1 Electrotechnical Sheet-steels
2.2.2 High-Saturation Ferromagnetic Alloys
2.2.3 Permalloys
2.2.4 Amorphous Materials
2.2.5 Solid Ferromagnetic Materials
2.2.6 Soft Magnetic Powder Composites
2.3 Permanent Magnets
2.3.1 Demagnetization Curve
2.3.2 Magnetic Parameters
2.3.3 Magnetic Flux Density in the Airgap
2.3.4 Properties of Permanent Magnets
2.4 Conductors
2.5 Principles of Superconductivity
2.6 Laminated Stacks
2.7 Armature Windings of Slotted Cores
2.8 Slotless Armature Systems
2.9 Electromagnetic Excitation Systems
2.10 Permanent Magnet Excitation Systems
2.11 Superconducting Excitation Systems
2.12 Hybrid Linear Stepping Motors
3 Theory of Linear Synchronous Motors
3.1 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
3.1.1 Magnetic Field of the Armature Winding
3.1.2 Form Factors and Reaction Factors
3.1.3 Synchronous Reactance
3.1.4 Voltage Induced
3.1.5 Electromagnetic Power and Thrust
3.1.6 Thrust Ripple
3.1.7 Direct Calculation of Thrust
3.2 Motors with Superconducting Excitation Coils
3.3 Variable Reluctance Motors
3.4 Permanent Magnet Hybrid Motors
3.4.1 Finite Element Approach
3.4.2 Reluctance Network Approach
3.4.3 Experimental Investigation
3.5 Switched Reluctance Motors
4 Motion Control
4.1 Control of a.c. Motors
4.2 EMF and Thrust of PM Synchronous and Brushless Motors
4.2.1 Sine-Wave Motors
4.2.2 Square Wave (Trapezoidal) Motors
4.3 Dynamic Model of a PM Motor
4.4 Thrust and Speed Control of PM Motors
4.4.1 Open Loop Control
4.4.2 Closed Loop Control
4.4.3 Zero Direct Axis Current Control
4.4.4 Flux- Weakening Control
4.4.5 Direct Thrust Control
4.4.6 Fuzzy Control
4.5 Control of Hybrid Stepping Motors
4.5.1 Microstepping
4.5.2 Electronic Controllers
4.6 Precision Linear Positioning
5 Sensors
5.1 Linear Optical Sensors
5.1.1 Incremental Encoders
5.1.2 Absolute Encoders
5.2 Linear Magnetic Encoders
5.2.1 Construction
5.2.2 Noise Cancellation
5.2.3 Signal Interpolation Process
5.2.4 Transmission of Speed and Position Signals
6 High Speed Maglev Transport
6.1 Electromagnetic and Electrodynamic Levitation
6.2 Transrapid System (Germany)
6.2.1 Background
6.2.2 Propulsion, Support and Guidance
6.2.3 Guideway
6.2.4 Power Supply
6.2.5 Vehicle
6.2.6 Control System of Electromagnets
6.2.7 The Future of Transrapid System
6.2.8 History of Transrapid Maglev System in Germany
6.3 Yamanashi Maglev Test Line in Japan
6.3.1 Background
6.3.2 Location of Yamanashi Maglev Test Line
6.3.3 Principle of Operation
6.3.4 Guideway
6.3.5 Vehicle
6.3.6 Superconducting Electromagnet
6.3.7 Power Conversion Substation
6.3.8 Brakes
6.3.9 Boarding System
6.3.10 Control System
6.3.11 Communication System
6.3.12 Experiments
6.3.13 History of Superconducting Maglev Transportation Technology in Japan
6.4 Swissmetro
6.4.1 Assumptions
6.4.2 Pilot Project
6.5 Marine Express
7 Building and Factory Transportation Systems
7.1 Elevator Hoisting Machines
7.1.1 Linear Motor Driven Elevator Cars
7.1.2 Elevator with Linear Motor in the Pit
7.1.3 Linear Motor in Counterweight
7.1.4 Conventional versus Linear Motor Driven Elevator
7.2 Ropeless Elevators
7.2.1 Vertical Transport in Ultra-High Buildings
7.3 Assessment of Hoist Performance
7.3.1 Construction of Ropeless Elevators
7.3.2 Operation
7.3.3 First Prototypes
7.3.4 Brakes
7.4 Horizontal Transportation Systems
7.4.1 Guidelines for Installation
7.4.2 Construction
7.4.3 Applications
8 Industrial Automation Systems
8.1 Automation of Manufacturing Processes
8.2 Casting processes
8.2.1 ****l Casting Machines
8.2.2 2D Orientation of Plastic Films
8.3 Machining Processes
8.4 Welding and Thermal Cutting
8.4.1 Friction Welding
8.4.2 Welding Robots
8.4.3 Thermal Cutting
8.5 Surface Treatment and Finishing
8.5.1 Electrocoating
8.5.2 Laser Scribing Systems
8.6 Material Handling
8.6.1 Monorail Material Handling System
8.6.2 Semiconductor Wafer Transport
8.6.3 Capsule Filling Machine
8.7 Testing
8.7.1 Surface Roughness Measurement
8.7.2 Generator of Vibration
8.8 Industrial Laser Applications
A Magnetic Circuits with Permanent Magnets
A.1 Approximation of Demagnetization Curve and Recoil Line
A.2 Operating Diagram
A.2.1 Construction of the Operating Diagram
A.2.2 Magnetization without Armature
A.2.3 Magnetization with Armature
A.2.4 Equivalent Magnetic Circuit
B Calculations of Permeances
B.1 Field Plotting
B.2 Dividing the Magnetic Field into Simple Solids
B.3 Prisms and Cylinders Located in an Open Space
C Performance Calculations for PM LSMs
References
Symbols and Abbreviations

http://mihd.net/h5gqbx
MD5: fddbcaa1f539e73379bb0c3c4c6a1f12





**************************************** **********

Synchronous Generators (Electric Power Engineering Series)

By Ion Boldea

Publisher: CRC
Number Of Pages: 448
Publication Date: 2005-11-09
Sales Rank: 84774
ISBN / ASIN: 084935725X
EAN: 9780849357251
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: CRC
Studio: CRC





Book De******ion:

Surveying the technologies used to satisfy the world's demand for open, efficient, and clean electricity, Synchronous Generators provides an in-depth examination of synchronous generators for both stand-alone and grid-connected applications. Part of The Electric Generators Handbook, Two-Volume Set, this book offers authoritative, tightly focused treatment of the topologies, steady state and transients modeling, performance, control, design, and testing of stand-alone and grid-connected generators in synchronous operation. Synchronous Generators offers a thorough introduction to electrical energy and electricity generation, including the basic principles of electric generators. The book devotes a chapter to the most representative prime mover models for transients used in active control of various generators. Then, individual chapters explore the topologies and steady state of large and medium-power synchronous generators; modeling and transients; control in power systems; design, including simple cases; and testing. Numerous examples, sample results, and illustrations highlight the concepts. The promise of renewable, sustainable energy rests on our ability to design innovative power systems that are able to harness energy from a variety of sources. Synchronous Generators supplies the tools necessary to design, validate, and deploy the right power generation technologies to fulfill tomorrow's complex energy needs.

*******s

1 Electric Energy and Electric Generators.............................. ........................................ .....................1-1
2 Principles of Electric Generators.............................. ........................................ .................................2-1
3 Prime Movers ......3-1
4 Large and Medium Power Synchronous Generators: Topologies and Steady State......................4-1
5 Synchronous Generators: Modeling for (and) Transients.............................. .................................5-1
6 Control of Synchronous Generators in Power Systems................................. ..................................6-1
7 Design of Synchronous Generators ........................................ ........................................ ..................7-1
8 Testing of Synchronous Generators ........................................ ........................................ ..................8-1



http://rapidshare.com/files/10111678...generators.rar

http://mihd.net/daf6qr





**************************************** ***********

Power Quality (The Electric Power Engineering Series)

By C. Sankaran

Publisher: TF-CRC
Number Of Pages: 216
Publication Date: 2001-12-21
Sales Rank: 1404851
ISBN / ASIN: 0849310407
EAN: 9780849310409
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: TF-CRC
Studio: TF-CRC




Book De******ion:

Frequency disturbances, transients, grounding, interference…the issues related to power quality are many, and solutions to power quality problems can be complex. However, by combining theory and practice to develop a qualitative analysis of power quality, the issues become relatively straightforward, and one can begin to find solutions to power quality problems confronted in the real world. Power Quality builds the foundation designers, engineers, and technicians need to survive in the current power system environment. It treats power system theory and power quality principles as interdependent entities, and balances these with a wealth of practical examples and data drawn from the author's 30 years of experience in the design, testing, and trouble-shooting of power systems. It compares different power quality measurement instruments and details ways to correctly interpret power quality data. It also presents alternative solutions to power quality problems and compares them for feasibility and economic viability. Power quality problems can have serious consequences, from loss of productivity to loss of life, but they can be easily prevented. You simply need a good understanding of electrical power quality and its impact on the performance of power systems. By changing the domain of power quality from one of theory to one of practice, this book imparts that understanding and will develop your ability to effectively measure, test, and resolve power quality problems.

*******s
Chapter 1 Introduction to Power Quality
1.1 Definition of Power Quality
1.2 Power Quality Progression
1.3 Power Quality Terminology
1.4 Power Quality Issues
1.5 Susceptibility Criteria
1.5.1 Cause and Effect
1.5.2 Treatment Criteria
1.5.3 Power Quality Weak Link
1.5.4 Interdependence
1.5.5 Stress–Strain Criteria
1.5.6 Power Quality vs. Equipment Immunity
1.6 Responsibilities of the Suppliers and Users of Electrical Power
1.7 Power Quality Standards
1.8 Conclusions
Chapter 2 Power Frequency Disturbance
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Common Power Frequency Disturbances
2.2.1 Voltage Sags
2.3 Cures for Low-Frequency Disturbances
2.3.1 Isolation Transformers
2.3.2 Voltage Regulators
2.3.3 Static Uninterruptible Power Source Systems
2.3.4 Rotary Uninterruptible Power Source Units
2.4 Voltage Tolerance Criteria
2.5 Conclusions
Chapter 3 Electrical Transients
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Transient System Model
3.3 Examples of Transient Models and Their Response
3.3.1 Application of DC Voltage to a Capacitor
3.3.2 Application of DC Voltage to an Inductor
3.4 Power System Transient Model
3.5 Types and Causes of Transients
3.5.1 Atmospheric Causes
3.5.2 Switching Loads On or Off
3.5.3 Interruption of Fault Circuits
3.5.4 Capacitor Bank Switching
3.6 Examples of Transient Waveforms
3.6.1 Motor Start Transient
3.6.2 Power Factor Correction Capacitor Switching Transient
3.6.3 Medium Voltage Capacitor Bank Switching Transient
3.6.4 Voltage Notch Due to Uninterruptible Power Source Unit
3.6.5 Neutral Voltage Swing
3.6.6 Sudden Application of Voltage
3.6.7 Self-Produced Transients
3.7 Conclusions
Chapter 4 Harmonics
4.1 Definition of Harmonics
4.2 Harmonic Number ( h )
4.3 Odd and Even Order Harmonics
4.4 Harmonic Phase Rotation and Phase Angle Relationship
4.5 Causes of Voltage and Current Harmonics
4.6 Individual and Total Harmonic Distortion
4.7 Harmonic Signatures
4.7.1 Fluorescent Lighting
4.7.2 Adjustable Speed Drives
4.7.3 Personal Computer and Monitor
4.8 Effect of Harmonics on Power System Devices
4.8.1 Transformers
4.8.2 AC Motors
4.8.3 Capacitor Banks
4.8.4 Cables
4.8.5 Busways
4.8.6 Protective Devices
4.9 Guidelines for Harmonic Voltage and Current Limitation
4.10 Harmonic Current Mitigation
4.10.1 Equipment Design
4.10.2 Harmonic Current Cancellation
4.10.3 Harmonic Filters
4.11 Conclusions
Chapter 5 Grounding and Bonding
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Shock and Fire Hazards
5.3 National Electrical Code Grounding Requirements
5.4 Essentials of a Grounded System
5.5 Ground Electrodes
5.6 Earth Resistance Tests
5.7 Earth–Ground Grid Systems
5.7.1 Ground Rods
5.7.2 Plates
5.7.3 Ground Ring
5.8 Power Ground System
5.9 Signal Reference Ground
5.10 Signal Reference Ground Methods
5.11 Single-Point and Multipoint Grounding
5.12 Ground Loops
5.13 Electrochemical Reactions Due to Ground Grids
5.14 Examples of Grounding Anomalies or Problems
5.14.1 Loss of Ground Causes Fatality
5.14.2 Stray Ground Loop Currents Cause Computer Damage
5.14.3 Ground Noise Causes Adjustable Speed Drives to Shut Down
5.15 Conclusions
Chapter 6 Power Factor
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Active and Reactive Power
6.3 Displacement and True Power Factor
6.4 Power Factor Improvement
6.5 Power Factor Correction
6.6 Power Factor Penalty
6.7 Other Advantages of Power Factor Correction
6.8 Voltage Rise Due to Capacitance
6.9 Application of Synchronous Condensers
6.10 Static VAR Compensators
6.11 Conclusions
Chapter 7 Electromagnetic Interference
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Frequency Classification
7.3 Electrical Fields
7.4 Magnetic Fields
7.5 Electromagnetic Interference Terminology
7.5.1 Decibel (dB)
7.5.2 Radiated Emission
7.5.3 Conducted Emission
7.5.4 Attenuation
7.5.5 Common Mode Rejection Ratio
7.5.6 Noise
7.5.7 Common Mode Noise
7.5.8 Transverse Mode Noise
7.5.9 Bandwidth
7.5.10 Filter
7.5.11 Shielding
7.6 Power Frequency Fields
7.7 High-Frequency Interference
7.8 Electromagnetic Interference Susceptibility
7.9 EMI Mitigation
7.9.1 Shielding for Radiated Emission
7.9.2 Filters for Conducted Emission
7.9.3 Device Location to Minimize Interference
7.10 Cable Shielding to Minimize Electromagnetic Interference
7.11 Health Concerns of Electromagnetic Interference
7.12 Conclusions
Chapter 8 Static Electricity
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Triboelectricity
8.3 Static Voltage Buildup Criteria
8.4 Static Model
8.5 Static Control
8.6 Static Control Floors
8.7 Humidity Control
8.8 Ion Compensation
8.9 Static-Preventative Casters
8.10 Static Floor Requirements
8.11 Measurement of Static Voltages
8.12 Discharge of Static Potentials
8.13 Conclusions
Chapter 9 Measuring and Solving Power Quality Problems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Power Quality Measurement Devices
9.2.1 Harmonic Analyzers
9.2.2 Transient-Disturbance Analyzers
9.2.3 Oscilloscopes
9.2.4 Data Loggers and Chart Recorders
9.2.5 True RMS Meters
9.3 Power Quality Measurements
9.4 Number of Test Locations
9.5 Test Duration
9.6 Instrument Setup
9.7 Instrument Setup Guidelines
9.8 Conclusions


http://rapidshare.com/files/38772095...0849310407.pdf

http://www.4shared.com/file/13940613...r_quality.html

http://mihd.net/xp821r
MD5: b14dee08c0fbac8f8fc3decf432a92b9





**************************************** **************


Electric Power Distribution Handbook (Electric Power Engineering Series)

By Thomas Allen Short

Publisher: CRC
Number Of Pages: 784
Publication Date: 2003-09-15
Sales Rank: 242576
ISBN / ASIN: 0849317916
EAN: 9780849317910
Binding: Hardcover
Manufacturer: CRC
Studio: CRC




Book De******ion:

Generation, transmission, distribution. Of the "big three" components of the electricity infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. Yet, its impact on reliability, quality of service, and society often make distribution the most critical element. Today, deregulation and the emergence of distributed power generation mean it is now more important than ever for utility engineers to have fast access to better information. The Electric Power Distribution Handbook provides that information on the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. It begins with an in-depth look at equipment, applications, and tasks such as choosing transformer connections and sizing and placing capacitors. The focus then shifts to reliability and power quality, reflecting the strong dependence of the reliability of service on distribution systems performance. The author then tackles lightning protection, grounding, and safety, and concludes with a chapter that will help utilities avoid the problems inherent in the introduction of distributed generation. This book is also a comprehensive source for the hard-to-find tables, graphs, methods, and statistics that distribution system engineers need. It includes tips and solutions for solving problems and improving performance, all aimed at delivering the best quality while keeping costs down. In short, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook gives readers the tools they need to understand the science and practices of distribution systems.

*******s
1 Fundamentals of Distribution Systems
1.1 Primary Distribution Configurations
1.2 Urban Networks
1.3 Primary Voltage Levels
1.4 Distribution Substations
1.5 Subtransmission Systems
1.6 Differences between European and North American Systems
1.7 Loads
1.8 The Past and the Future
References
2 Overhead Lines
2.1 Typical Constructions
2.2 Conductor Data
2.3 Line Impedances
2.4 Simplified Line Impedance Calculations
2.5 Line Impedance Tables
2.6 Conductor Sizing
2.7 Ampacities
2.7.1 Neutral Conductor Sizing
2.8 Secondaries
2.9 Fault Withstand Capability
2.9.1 Conductor Annealing
2.9.2 Burndowns
2.10 Other Overhead Issues
2.10.1 Connectors and Splices
2.10.2 Radio Frequency Interference
References
3 Underground Distribution
3.1 Applications
3.1.1 Underground Residential Distribution (URD)
3.1.2 Main Feeders
3.1.3 Urban Systems
3.1.4 Overhead vs. Underground
3.2 Cables
3.2.1 Cable Insulation
3.2.2 Conductors
3.2.3 Neutral or Shield
3.2.4 Semiconducting Shields
3.2.5 Jacket
3.3 Installations and Configurations
3.4 Impedances
3.4.1 Resistance
3.4.2 Impedance Formulas
3.4.3 Impedance Tables
3.4.4 Capacitance
3.5 Ampacity
3.6 Fault Withstand Capability
3.7 Cable Reliability
3.7.1 Water Trees
3.7.2 Other Failure Modes
3.7.3 Failure Statistics
3.8 Cable Testing
3.9 Fault Location
References
4 Transformers
4.1 Basics
4.2 Distribution Transformers
4.3 Single-Phase Transformers
4.4 Three-Phase Transformers
4.4.1 Grounded Wye – Grounded Wye
4.4.2 Delta – Grounded Wye
4.4.3 Floating Wye – Delta
4.4.4 Other Common Connections
4.4.4.1 Delta – Delta
4.4.4.2 Open Wye – Open Delta
4.4.4.3 Other Suitable Connections
4.4.5 Neutral Stability with a Floating Wye
4.4.6 Sequence Connections of Three-Phase Transformers
4.5 Loadings
4.6 Losses
4.7 Network Transformers
4.8 Substation Transformers
4.9 Special Transformers
4.9.1 Autotransformers
4.9.2 Grounding Transformers
4.10 Special Problems
4.10.1 Paralleling
4.10.2 Ferroresonance
4.10.3 Switching Floating Wye – Delta Banks
4.10.4 Backfeeds
4.10.5 Inrush
References
5 Voltage Regulation
5.1 Voltage Standards
5.2 Voltage Drop
5.3 Regulation Techniques
5.3.1 Voltage Drop Allocation and Primary 5.3.2 Load Flow Models
5.3.3 Voltage Problems
5.3.4 Voltage Reduction
5.4 Regulators
5.4.1 Line-Drop Compensation
5.4.1.1 Load-Center Compensation
5.4.1.2 Voltage-Spread Compensation
5.4.1.3 Effects of Regulator Connections
5.4.2 Voltage Override
5.4.3 Regulator Placement
5.4.4 Other Regulator Issues
5.5 Station Regulation
5.5.1 Parallel Operation
5.5.2 Bus Regulation Settings
5.6 Line Loss and Voltage Drop Relationships
References
6 Capacitor Application
6.1 Capacitor Ratings
6.2 Released Capacity
6.3 Voltage Support
6.4 Reducing Line Losses
6.4.1 Energy Losses
6.5 Switched Banks
6.6 Local Controls
6.7 Automated Controls
6.8 Reliability
6.9 Failure Modes and Case Ruptures
6.10 Fusing and Protection
6.11 Grounding
References
7 Faults
7.1 General Fault Characteristics
7.2 Fault Calculations
7.2.1 Transformer Connections
7.2.2 Fault Profiles
7.2.3 Effect of X/R Ratio
7.2.4 Secondary Faults
7.2.5 Primary-to-Secondary Faults
7.2.6 Underbuilt Fault to a Transmission Circuit
7.2.7 Fault Location Calculations
7.3 Limiting Fault Currents
7.4 Arc Characteristics
7.5 High-Impedance Faults
7.6 External Fault Causes
7.6.1 Trees
7.6.2 Weather and Lightning
7.6.3 Animals
7.6.4 Other External Causes
7.7 Equipment Faults
7.8 Faults in Equipment
7.9 Targeted Reduction of Faults
References
8 Short-Circuit Protection
8.1 Basics of Distribution Protection
8.1.1 Reach
8.1.2 Inrush and Cold-Load Pickup
8.2 Protection Equipment
8.2.1 Circuit Interrupters
8.2.2 Circuit Breakers
8.2.3 Circuit Breaker Relays
8.2.4 Reclosers
8.2.5 Expulsion Fuses
8.2.5.1 Fuse Cutouts
8.2.6 Current-Limiting Fuses
8.3 Transformer Fusing
8.4 Lateral Tap Fusing and Fuse Coordination
8.5 Station Relay and Recloser Settings
8.6 Coordinating Devices
8.6.1 Expulsion Fuse–Expulsion Fuse Coordination
8.6.2 Current-Limiting Fuse Coordination
8.6.3 Recloser–Expulsion Fuse Coordination
8.6.4 Recloser–Recloser Coordination
8.6.5 Coordinating Instantaneous Elements
8.7 Fuse Saving vs. Fuse Blowing
8.7.1 Industry Usage
8.7.2 Effects on Momentary and Sustained Interruptions
8.7.3 Coordination Limits of Fuse Saving
8.7.4 Long-Duration Faults and Damage with Fuse
Blowing
8.7.5 Long-Duration Voltage Sags with Fuse Blowing
8.7.6 Optimal Implementation of Fuse Saving
8.7.7 Optimal Implementation of Fuse Blowing
8.8 Other Protection Schemes
8.8.1 Time Delay on the Instantaneous Element
(Fuse Blowing)
8.8.2 High-Low Combination Scheme
8.3.3 SCADA Control of the Protection Scheme
8.8.4 Adaptive Control by Phases
8.9 Reclosing Practices
8.9.1 Reclose Attempts and Dead Times
8.9.2 Immediate Reclose
8.9.2.1 Effect on Sensitive Residential Devices
8.9.2.2 Delay Necessary to Avoid Retriggering
Faults
8.9.2.3 Reclose Impacts on Motors
8.10 Single-Phase Protective Devices
8.10.1 Single-Phase Reclosers with Three-Phase Lockout
References
9 Reliability
9.1 Reliability Indices
9.1.1 Customer-Based Indices
9.1.2 Load-Based Indices
9.2 Storms and Weather
9.3 Variables Affecting Reliability Indices
9.3.1 Circuit Exposure and Load Density
9.3.2 Supply Configuration
9.3.3 Voltage
9.3.4 Long-Term Reliability Trends
9.4 Modeling Radial Distribution Circuits
9.5 Parallel Distribution Systems
9.6 Improving Reliability
9.6.1 Identify and Target Fault Causes
9.6.2 Identify and Target Circuits
9.6.3 Switching and Protection Equipment
9.6.4 Automation
9.6.5 Maintenance and Inspections
9.6.6 Restoration
9.6.7 Fault Reduction
9.7 Interruption Costs
References
10 Voltage Sags and Momentary Interruptions
10.1 Location
10.2 Momentary Interruptions
10.3 Voltage Sags
10.3.1 Effect of Phases
10.3.2 Load Response
10.3.3 Analysis of Voltage Sags
10.4 Characterizing Sags and Momentaries
10.4.1 Industry Standards
10.4.2 Characterization Details
10.5 Occurrences of Voltage Sags
10.5.1 Site Power Quality Variations
10.5.2 Transmission-Level Power Quality
10.6 Correlations of Sags and Momentaries
10.7 Factors That Influence Sag and Momentary Rates
10.7.1 Location
10.7.2 Load Density
10.7.3 Voltage Class
10.7.4 Comparison and Ranking of Factors
10.8 Prediction of Quality Indicators Based on Site Characteristics
10.9 Equipment Sensitivities
10.9.1 Computers and Electronic Power Supplies
10.9.2 Industrial Processes and Equipment
10.9.2.1 Relays and Contactors
10.9.2.2 Adjustable-Speed Drives
10.9.2.3 Programmable-Logic Controllers
10.9.3 Residential Equipment
10.10 Solution Options
10.10.1 Utility Options for Momentary Interruptions
10.10.2 Utility Options for Voltage Sags
10.10.2.1 Raising the Nominal Voltage
10.10.2.2 Line Reactors
10.10.3.2 Neutral Reactors
10.10.2.4 Current-Limiting Fuses
10.10.3 Utility Options with Nontraditional Equipment
10.10.3.1 Fast Transfer Switches
10.10.3.2 DVRs and Other Custom-Power Devices
10.10.4 Customer/Equipment Solutions
10.11 Power Quality Monitoring
References
11 Other Power Quality Issues
11.1 Overvoltages and Customer Equipment Failures
11.1.1 Secondary/Facility Grounding
11.1.2 Reclose Transients
11.2 Switching Surges
11.2.1 Voltage Magnification
11.2.2 Tripping of Adjustable-Speed Drives
11.2.3 Prevention of Capacitor Transients
11.3 Harmonics
11.3.1 Resonances
11.3.2 Telephone Interference
11.4 Flicker
11.4.1 Flicker Solutions
11.4.1.1 Load Changes
11.4.1.2 Series Capacitor
11.4.1.3 Static Var Compensator
11.4.1.4 Other Solutions
11.5 Voltage Unbalance
References
12 Lightning Protection
12.1 Characteristics
12.2 Incidence of Lightning
12.3 Traveling Waves
12.4 Surge Arresters
12.4.1 Ratings and Selection
12.4.2 Housings
12.4.3 Other Technologies
12.4.4 Isolators
12.4.5 Arrester Reliability and Failures
12.5 Equipment Protection
12.5.1 Equipment Insulation
12.5.2 Protective Margin
12.5.3 Secondary-Side Transformer Failures
12.6 Underground Equipment Protection
12.6.1 Open Point Arrester
12.6.2 Scout Arresters
12.6.3 Tapped Cables
12.6.4 Other Cable Failure Modes
12.7 Line Protection
12.7.1 Induced Voltages
12.7.2 Insulation
12.7.2.1 Practical Considerations
12.7.3 Shield Wires
12.7.4 Line Protection Arresters
12.8 Other Considerations
12.8.1 Role of Grounding
12.8.2 Burndowns
12.8.3 Crossarm and Pole Damage and Bonding
12.8.4 Arc Quenching of Wood
References
13 Grounding and Safety
13.1 System Grounding Configurations
13.1.1 Four-Wire Multigrounded Systems
13.1.2 Other Grounding Configurations
13.2 System Grounding and Neutral Shifts During Ground Faults
13.2.1 Neutral Shifts on Multigrounded Systems
13.2.2 Neutral Reactor
13.2.3 Overvoltages on Ungrounded Systems
13.3 Equipment/Customer Grounding
13.3.1 Special Considerations on Ungrounded Systems
13.3.2 Secondary Grounding Problems
13.4 Ground Rods and Other Grounding Electrodes
13.4.1 Soil Characteristics
13.4.2 Corrosion and Grounding Electrodes
13.4.3 Resistance Measurements
13.5 Shocks and Stray Voltages
13.5.1 Biological Models
13.5.2 Step and Touch Potentials
13.5.3 Stray Voltage
13.5.4 Tree Contacts
13.6 Protective Grounding
References
14 Distributed Generation
14.1 Characteristics of Distributed Generators
14.1.1 Energy Sources
14.1.2 Synchronous Generators
14.1.3 Induction Generators
14.1.4 Inverters
14.1.5 Modeling Small Generators
14.2 Islanding Issues
14.2.1 Effect of Transformer Connections on Overvoltages
14.2.1.1 Overvoltage Relays and 59G Ground Fault
Detection
14.2.1.2 Effectively Grounding a Grounded-Wye –
Grounded-Wye Transformer Connection
14.2.1.3 Sizing a Neutral Grounding Reactor on a
Grounded-Wye – Delta Connection to Maintain
Effective Grounding
14.2.2 Anti-Islanding Protection
14.2.3 Active Anti-Islanding
14.2.4 Relaying Issues
14.2.5 Self-Excitation
14.2.6 Ferroresonance
14.2.7 Backfeed to a Downed Conductor and Backfeed
Voltages
14.3 Protection Issues
14.3.1 Tradeoff Between Overvoltages and Ground Fault
Current
14.3.2 Fuse Saving Coordination
14.4 Power Quality Impacts
14.4.1 Voltage Regulation
14.4.2 Harmonics
14.4.3 Flicker
14.4.4 Other Impacts on Power Quality
14.4.5 High Quality Power Configurations
14.5 Generator Reliability
References

http://rapidshare.com/files/10744979...n_handbook.rar

http://www.mihd.net/ago6s1

**************************************** ***************




المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



Google+

شارك إعجابك بالموضوع --» 

الملفات المرفقة
نوع الملف: rar electric_power_distribution_handbook.rar (6.97 ميجابايت, المشاهدات 826)
آخر تعديل بواسطة احمد كامل ، 04-18-2010 الساعة 11:12 PM.
qjjiijiqjiij غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 05-03-2010, 12:47 PM   رقم المشاركة : [2]
عضو جديد
 

nowayout_killer is on a distinguished road
افتراضي

thanksssssssss





المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



nowayout_killer غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 05-07-2010, 12:15 PM   رقم المشاركة : [3]
عضو متألق
 

firasnabiel is on a distinguished road
افتراضي سلسلة كتب روعة

شكرا على هذا الكنز الجميل





المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



firasnabiel غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 05-15-2010, 11:55 AM   رقم المشاركة : [4]
عضو متألق
 

mustafa alamine is on a distinguished road
افتراضي

جزاك اللة كل خير والله الموفق




المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



mustafa alamine غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 05-20-2010, 11:35 PM   رقم المشاركة : [5]
عضو متألق
 

serag is on a distinguished road
افتراضي

جزاك الله خيرا




المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



serag غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 06-08-2010, 07:34 PM   رقم المشاركة : [6]
عضو متألق
 

Eng Osama.Numan is on a distinguished road
افتراضي

بارك الله فيكم وجزاكم الله كل الخير





المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



Eng Osama.Numan غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 07-13-2010, 10:55 AM   رقم المشاركة : [7]
عضو نشيط
الصورة الرمزية ماسة احمد
 

ماسة احمد is on a distinguished road
افتراضي

قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم
من لا يشكر الناس لا يشكر الله
صدق رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم
فلك جزيل الشكر والله الموفق





المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



ماسة احمد غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 07-13-2010, 11:39 AM   رقم المشاركة : [8]
م.مصطفى أبوبكر
الصورة الرمزية qjjiijiqjiij
 

qjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud ofqjjiijiqjiij has much to be proud of
افتراضي

شكراا لكم على الردود





المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



التوقيع:
المواضيع منقولة فالرجاء الدعاء لكل من ساهم فى وصول المواضيع اليكم
....


أسألك الدعاء لأبي واختي رحمهم الله
اللهم ارحمهم فوق الارض وتحت الارض ويوم العرض عليك . اللهم قه عذابك يوم تبعث عبادك .
اللهم انزل نورا من نورك عليهم
اللهم نور لهم قبرهم ووسع مدخلهم وآنس وحشتهم
اللهم ارحم غربتهم
اللهم اجعل قبرهم روضة من رياض الجنة . لا حفرة من حفر النار

ادعوكم للاعجاب بصفحة صدقة جارية لعلها تكون لنا ولكم صادقة جاريه ليوم الدين


qjjiijiqjiij غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 08-06-2010, 04:43 PM   رقم المشاركة : [9]
عضو جديد
 

mohamed moharam is on a distinguished road
افتراضي

جزاك الله خيرا





المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



mohamed moharam غير متواجد حالياً  
قديم 08-08-2010, 09:15 AM   رقم المشاركة : [10]
عضو متقدم
الصورة الرمزية gomaa_gamaan
 

gomaa_gamaan is on a distinguished road
افتراضي

جزاكم الله خيرا





المصدر : منتدى الهندسة الكهربية - من مكتبة الهندسة الكهربية



gomaa_gamaan غير متواجد حالياً  

العلامات المرجعية

أعــظم ســلسلة كـــتب (The ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERING Series)


أدوات الموضوع
انواع عرض الموضوع

ضوابط المشاركة
لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
لا يمكنك اضافة مرفقات
لا يمكنك تعديل مشاركاتك

BB code is متاحة
كود [IMG] متاحة
كود HTML معطلة
Trackbacks are متاحة
Pingbacks are متاحة
Refbacks are متاحة
الساعة الآن »06:11 PM.
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.7.5
.Copyright ©2000 - 2019, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd
3y vBSmart
F.T.G.Y 3.0 BY: D-sAb.NeT © 2011